LORETA Neurofeedback involves placing a cap with 19 electrodes on the head. Under each electrode there are several frequencies of brainwaves. LORETA separates each frequency and finds the deep source location in the brain.
A Quantitative EEG is done recording the patient's brain waves. If brain waves appear in the area of the brain that is associated with a symptom and these brain waves differ from a normal data base, these brain waves will be targeted during neurofeedback.
When the patient returns the 19 electrodes are placed back on the head of the patient. The patient will look at a screen, for instance, that has a car on a race track. Each time a normal brain wave occurs in the targeted area by chance, the car will move. Gradually the patient will learn what to do to make the car move. Once that is done, the length of time the patient has to move the car will be extended until the brain waves move back to normal.
Each session has 5 five minute training periods. Usually the patient must do 3 sessions per week. Neurofeedback usually takes about 20 sessions.
Fig. 1. The International 10–20 System seen from (A) the left and (B) above the head. A, earlobe; C, central; F, frontal; Fp, frontal polar; O, occipital; P, parietal; Pg, nasopharyngeal. (From Ferreira A, Celeste WC, Cheein FA, et al. Human-machine interfaces based on EMG and EEG applied to robotic systems. J Neuroeng Rehabil 2008;5:10.)
Image courtesy of Applied Neuroscience
Fig. 2. International 10–20 System-Various functions associated with particular Brodmann areas based on fMRI, PET, EEG/magnetoencephalography (MEG), and lesion/tumor studies. (Data from Refs.1–5; and Courtesy of M. Dubin, PhD, Boulder, CO.)